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電気自動車の魅惑の進化とその歴史

The fascinating evolution of the electric car

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The potential of electric cars seems to be higher now than ever before.

電気自動車の可能性は以前にも増して大きくなっています。

Traditional automakers including General Motors, Volkswagen, Daimler AG, and others are all investing heavily in electric vehicles. And Tesla, of course, has built its entire business off of battery powered cars.

ゼネラルモーターズフォルクスワーゲンダイムラー AGなどの伝統的な自動車メーカーは全て、電気自動車へ大きく投資しています。 そして、もちろん、テスラ電気自動車の全体的な事業を構築しました。

But electric automobiles are nothing new. They actually have a rich history in the US and, at one point, were even the dominant type of car.

しかし、電気自動車は新しいものではありません。それらは、米国のある1点において豊富な歴史を実際に持っています。それらは、支配的な自動車の種類でさえあったのです。

Here's a look at how battery powered cars evolved over time.

電気自動車がどのように繰り返し進化してきたかを見てみましょう。

The electric car's first heyday was in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

電気自動車の最初の全盛期は、1800年代の最後から1900年代の最初

http://static2.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7edd08957b1d8b4634-1200/the-electric-cars-first-heyday-was-in-the-late-1800s-and-early-1900s.jpg
Photo of Thomas Edison with an electric car in 1913.

In 1899 and 1900, electric vehicles outsold all other types of cars. In fact, 28 percent of all 4,192 cars produced in the US in 1900 were electric, according to the American Census. And the total value of electric cars sold was more than gasoline and steam powered cars combined that year.

1899年と1900年、電気自動車は他のすべての種類の車の販売を上回った。 American Censusによれば、実際に1900年に米国で製造された4192台の自動車のうち、28%が電気自動車だった。 そして、その年に販売された電気自動車の総価値は、ガソリンや蒸気機関の車よりも多かった。

  • heyday - 全盛期

They even had key advantages over gasoline- and steam-powered cars in the early 1900s.

1900年の初期、それらはガソリンと蒸気による車を超える利点さえ持っていた。

http://static2.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7edd08957b1d8b4635-1200/they-even-had-key-advantages-over-gasoline-and-steam-powered-cars-in-the-early-1900s.jpg
1906 Wood's Queen Victoria Electric Car.

While the early electric cars were basically horseless carriages powered by batteries, they did have some perks.

For one, they didn’t have the smell, noise, or vibration that steam or gasoline cars had. The were also a lot easier to operate. Gasoline cars had to be manually cranked to start, and the vehicles required the driver to change gears while driving, which was very difficult.

Steam-powered cars didn’t require manual gear shifting, but they could take awhile to start and had less range than electric cars.

  • carriages - 馬車


But by 1935, electric cars were no longer popular.

しかし1935年、もはや電気自動車には人気がありませんでした。

http://static1.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7edd08957b1d8b4636-1200/but-by-1935-electric-cars-were-no-longer-popular.jpg

Electric car makers enjoyed some success into the 1920s, but production peaked in 1912.

By this time, Henry Ford’s mass production of combustion engines made gas-powered cars significantly cheaper than electric cars. For example, in 1912 an electric roadster sold for $1,750, while a gasoline car sold for $650.

Next-generation gasoline cars also packed a number of improvements, including an electric starter, that made them a lot easier to operate. By 1935 electric cars were sparse.

  • combustion - 燃焼


It wasn't until the 1960s and 1970s when interest in electric cars began to grow again.

1960年代から1970年代まで、電気自動車への興味は再び大きくならなかった。

http://static4.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7edd08957b1d8b4637-1200/it-wasnt-until-the-1960s-and-1970s-when-interest-in-electric-cars-began-to-grow-again.jpg
Participants at the First Symposium on Low Pollution Power Systems Development looking over the Esb "Sundancers", an Experimental Electric Car in 1973.

Much like today, concerns over pollution were partly responsible for the renewed interest in developing the technology for electric cars.

In 1970, the Clean Air Act was established, which required states to take control of their air quality and meet certain standards by deadlines. The OPEC oil embargo of 1973, which skyrocketed gasoline prices, also sparked interest in alternatives to fueled vehicles.

And by 1976 Congress took action and passed the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, which authorized the Energy Department to support research and development in electric and hybrid vehicles.

  • embargo - 禁輸
  • skyrocketed - 急増

Two companies became leaders in electric car production during the 1970s. The first was Sebring-Vanguard, which produced over 2,000 "CitiCars."

1970年台の間、2つの企業が電気自動車の製造においてリーダーとなった。ひとつめは、2000台以上の「CitiCars」を製造した、Sebring-Vanguard です。

http://static1.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7fdd08957b1d8b4638-1200/two-companies-became-leaders-in-electric-car-production-during-the-1970s-the-first-was-sebring-vanguard-which-produced-over-2000-citicars.jpg
In this 1974 file photo, this pyramid-shaped two passenger vehicle is a Sebring Vanguard, an electric car manufactured in Sebring, Fla.

These miniature commuter cars had a top speed of 44 mph, a normal cruise speed of 38 mph, and a range of 50 to 60 miles.

The Citicar and its variants remained the most-produced American electric car until 2011, when the Tesla Roadster surpassed it.

  • miniature - ミニチュア。こんなスペルだったとは知りませんでした。

The other company that rose to prominence was Elcar Corporation.

めだって有名になった、もう一つの企業は Elcar Corporation

http://static5.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7fdd08957b1d8b4639-1200/the-other-company-that-rose-to-prominence-was-elcar-corporation.jpg
One of the first Elcar vehicles.

The Elcar had a top speed of 45 mph, a range of 60 miles, and cost between $4,000 and $4,500.

  • rose to prominence - 目立って上昇した

Electric cars weren't just a US phenomenon, though. Automakers around the world began investing more in the technology. BMW even debuted its first electric car at the 1972 Summer Olympics.

しかし、電気自動車は米国だけの現象ではなかった。世界中の自動車メーカーがこの技術へ多くの投資を開始した。BMWさえ1972年の夏のオリンピックで最初の電気自動車をデビューさせた。

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BMW's 1602 E was developed in 1972 and was showcased at the Summer Olympics that year.

Twelve lead-acid starter batteries powered the vehicle, which featured a 42-horsepower electric motor. It could reach a top speed of 62 mph and had a range of 37 miles.

Although Olympics organizers used the 1602 E during the Munich games, the vehicle never went into production.

Many more electric cars debuted in the 1970s, but not many sold.

多くの電気自動車が1970年台に発売されたが、あまり多くは売れなかった

http://static3.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7fdd08957b1d8b463b-1200/many-more-electric-cars-debuted-in-the-1970s-but-not-many-sold.jpg
RT1 electric car prototype in Seattle, Washington around 1970.

Limitations in range and speed — and style — kept electric cars from being adopted on a mass scale, and their popularity died down in the 1980s.


But by 1990's, emissions regulations once again pushed automakers to revisit electric vehicles.

しかし1990年代、排ガス規制が自動車メーカーに、電気自動車の再検討を促した

http://static6.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7fdd08957b1d8b463c-1200/but-by-1990s-emissions-regulations-once-again-pushed-automakers-to-revisit-electric-vehicles.jpg
Workers at a General Motors plant in 1996 install the electric motor and drive train in one of the new electric vehicles.

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment and the 1992 Energy Policy Act helped spur investment again in electric vehicles.

The California Air Resources Board also passed new regulations that required automakers to make and sell a zero-emissions vehicle in order for them to market their cars in the state.

  • revisit - 再訪。

One of the most popular electric cars during this period became General Motors EV 1.

この時代に、最も人気のある電気自動車のひとつがゼネラル・モーターズの EV 1となった

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Beginning in 1996, GM produced 1,117 units of its EV1. The car was only available to people in California, Arizona, and Georgia and it could not be bought, only leased.

The car boasted a range of about 100 miles on a single charge and could go from zero to 60 in just seven seconds.

While consumers responded positively to the EV1, it wasn't a profitable business for GM and the company decided to recall all of the vehicles once leases had expired. The company then destroyed most of the vehicles, only keeping 40 model to donate to museums and other institutes.

  • boasted - 自慢する、誇る。
  • profitable - 有益

The rise of the Toyota Prius also helped grow interest in fuel-efficient cars.

トヨタPriusの登場が低燃費自動車への興味を大きくさせた

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The Prius was first produced in Japan in 1997, but then it became available worldwide in 2000.

The Prius was one of the first mass-produced hybrid-electric vehicles, and it quickly became a statement car.

In the first year of its global launch, the company sold some 50,000 Prius vehicles worldwide.

By July of this year, the company had sold more than 8 million hybrid vehicles — more than 5 million of which were Prius cars.

  • became a statement car - 代表する自動車になった。という意味かと思います。

And in 2006, news of Tesla's plans for a battery powered car with a range of 200 miles per charge helped raise the profile of electric vehicles.

そして2006年、テスラの一回の充電で200マイルの範囲を走れる電気自動車についての計画のニュースが、電気自動車のプロフィールを押し上げる助けをした

http://static3.businessinsider.com/image/56803f7fdd08957b1d8b463f-1200/and-in-2006-news-of-teslas-plans-for-a-battery-powered-car-with-a-range-of-200-miles-per-charge-helped-raise-the-profile-of-electric-vehicles.jpg
Visitors inspect the Tesla Roadster electric from Tesla Motors during the second press day of the Paris Auto Show, Friday, Oct. 3, 2008.

By 2011, the Tesla had launched its Roadster. But while the car had a range of more than 240 miles per charge, it cost more than $100,000.


In 2010, Nissan begin delivering its all-electric Leaf in the US.

2010年、日産は米国で完全に電気化された Leafを届け始めた。

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Nissan's Leaf has a range of 100 miles per charge and a more budget-conscious price of around $30,000.

The car is currently the bestselling electric highway-capable vehicle in the world. As of December of this year, Nissan has sold more than 200,000 Leafs worldwide and more than 88,000 in the US alone since its launch.


Looking forward, Tesla has big plans to produce its first mass-market car, called the Model 3, by 2017.

2017年、楽しみなのは、テスラが Model 3という最初の量販車を製造する大きな計画をしていることだ

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While Tesla has thus far focused on selling luxury high-end vehicles, it is expected to begin producing its first budget electric car in 2017.

The Model 3 will feature a range of more than 200 miles and price of about $35,000.


In response, traditional automakers like General Motors and Volkswagen are ramping up investment in the space.

それに応じて、ゼネラル・モーターズやフォルクス・ワーゲンなどの伝統的な自動車メーカーが、宇宙への投資を大きくしている。

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During the next few years, we will see a number of electric cars come to market from older automakers.

General Motors is aiming to have its Chevy Bolt, shown above, go into production late in 2016. The car will feature a range of 200 miles and charging to 80 percent capacity in just 45 minutes.

It's also expected to price around $30,000, which will make it a direct competitor with Tesla's Model 3.


A new car start-up called Faraday Future is taking after Tesla and is planning on building a long-range electric car.

Faraday Future という新たな自動車のスタートアップがテスラの後に続き、長距離電気自動車の製造計画をしている。

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Faraday Future is still in stealth mode, but the company has said it plans to have cars on the road by 2020.

The company hasn't shared any details about the exact range of its vehicles. However, Nick Sampson, its head of research and development, said that the batteries in its cars will be larger than Tesla's. This might mean Faraday Future's first cars could have a range of 250 miles or more per charge.


元記事は以下からどうぞ。

www.businessinsider.com

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